The adoption of biometric authentication systems has presented an emerging method of preventing and reducing the cases of identity theft and security breaches. While these problems open several challenges involving people’s privacy and the security of these biometric data, inter-operability features have been adopted to improve the accuracy and reliability of biometric authentication systems. Using pertinent information such as social security number, passwords, fingerprints and other proofs of identity, various designs of factor authentication mechanisms have been needed to enforce stronger and more accurate identity matching and verifications.

The use of various security factors in authentication systems have been used along with other biometric authentication systems like fingerprint scanning. Whether or not it involved 2 factor or multi factor authentication stages, the main goal with this technology is to enhance security. By requiring two or more independent pieces of information for authentication, it reduces the risk posed by weaker password enabled security features, which are an easy task to crack or hack. Overall, it presents a simple, intuitive and stronger automated identity verification as well as account and password authentication process.

This technology uses authentication factors, which simply are pieces of information that requires to be processed to authenticate and verify the entity and identity of the person requesting passage or access. Under various security constraints, the two-factor authentication process uses two independent factors to ascertain higher level of authentication assurance help with being authentic. It typically involves a signing on process which elicits information from the person requesting access. This system may ask that individual about “something he knows” like passwords or security/PIN codes, “something he has” like tokens or smart cards, and “something he is” like iris or fingerprint scans.

However, if the system solicits multiple information or answers to security questions, then the procedure of authentication is said to be multi-factor in nature. Multi-factor system of authentication involves two or more types of factors, which might employ pieces of security information along with biometric scans and other possible means of cryptographic biometric and traditional security keys.

The main element advantage to using many different security keys to biometric as well as security authentication systems is the use of unanticipated combinations of factors permitting or limiting the use of certain entries. This system deeply supports the federated identity management system.

Factor authentication is seen anywhere. It is used in laboratories, corporations, offices, hospitals and even in some local ATM machines, online banking and online shopping systems and in modern devices like laptops and cell phones. With the use of the provided hardware, people get to enjoy a reliable and highly secure credential vault that is heavily protected from all known means of breaches.

Although the system is highly reliable, in case that biometric information and other security keys are compromised, the system is vulnerable to attacks. The security information may be copied. Since the templates and information saved in the database where the system refers, compromised security information cannot be instantly and easily changed. Also, there is a good chance that some users may forget a number of the security information that they have provided, though this can be solved by maintaining one answer for many security questions. By using more security factors in authentication procedures, these problems may be controlled and solved.

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